A subset of the stem cells in hair follicles have the potential to regenerate the coating that insulates neurons in mice, reports Thomas Hornyak of the VA Maryland Health Care System and the University of Maryland School of Medicine and colleagues, in a new study published 24th April in PLOS Genetics. The study offers a new direction for finding therapeutic options for certain neurodegenerative diseases.
Researchers can now see how the two sides of the living brain mirror each other thanks to a new combination-imaging technique. The method dubbed 'opto-OISI' takes advantage of rapidly developing high-resolution optical technologies to help make sense of the trillions of connections in the brain. Published on April 23, 2019 in the open-access journal Scientific Reports, the study allows us to see how living monkey brains are wired in ways that were previously only accessible using invasive methods or post-mortem samples.
Using varying combinations of banana and pine scents, University of Pennsylvania professor Jay Gottfried discovered that three key brain regions help humans navigate from one odor to the next. The work points to the existence of a grid-like hexagonal architecture in the olfactory brain, similar to mapping configurations previously found to support spatial navigation in animals.
A switch to permanent daylight saving time will undo any positive effects on sleep of delaying school start times, according to researchers from the University of Surrey.
New research conducted in the Cognitive Neuroscience group of SISSA shows that a perceptual decision -- recognizing an object and taking the appropriate action -- is triggered as soon as the brain's processing networks accumulate the exact right quantity of sensory information. The studies uncover fundamental brain mechanisms underlying decision making in an uncertain world.
An international research team led by The University of Tokyo modeled the growth of cerebral tracts. Using neurons derived from stem cells, they grew cortical-like spheroids. In a microdevice, the spheroids extended bundles of axons toward each other, forming a physical and electrical connection. Fascicles grew less efficiently when one spheroid was absent, and when a gene relevant to cerebral tract formation was knocked-down. The study further illuminates brain growth and developmental disorders.
A new study shows that a synthetic molecule developed by Oregon Health & Science University scientists stimulates repair of the protective sheath that covers nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The study demonstrates in mice that a synthetic molecule called sobetirome efficiently repairs damaged myelin without side effects.
Two papers appearing April 18, 2019 in the journal Cell Metabolism confirm that the circadian clock is an important factor in how the body responds to physical exertion. Based on this work alone, it's too early to say when the best time is for you to go for a jog. But at least in the lab, exercise in the evening seems to be more productive, although human lifestyles are much more complicated.
Physical traits and behaviors that make a lizard sexy -- features used to attract potential mates and fend off competitors -- may be important enough that they do not change in the face of stress, according to Penn State researchers.
Based on the analysis of the genomes of more than a dozen flightless birds, including an extinct moa, a team led by Harvard researchers found that while different species show wide variety in the protein-coding portions of their genome, they appear to turn to the same regulatory pathways when evolving flight loss.