A group of Japanese researchers has discovered that neural inflammation caused by our innate immune system plays an unexpectedly important role in stress-induced depression. This insight could potentially lead to the development of new antidepressants targeting innate immune molecules. The findings were published on July 20 (Japan Standard Time) in the online edition of Neuron.
Scientists at HHMI's Janelia Research Campus have taken detailed pictures of the entire brain of an adult female fruit fly using transmission electron microscopy.
Rats exposed in the womb and during lactation to plasticizing chemicals known as phthalates had fewer neurons and synapses than those that were not exposed, researchers report in a new study. The phthalate-exposed rats had reductions in the size of their medial prefrontal cortex, a brain region that regulates behavior, and showed deficits in cognitive flexibility. The variety of phthalates and quantities used in the study were environmentally relevant to human exposures, researchers said.
New research from Duke University shows that neurons in the brain can carry two signals at once, using a strategy similar to multiplexing in telecommunications. The results may explain how the brain processes complex information from the world around us, and may also provide insight into some of our perceptual and cognitive limitations.
Recent articles in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics investigate metabolic quirks of cancer cells, the effects of inhibiting the enzyme that generates amyloid beta, and the mechanism by which a bacterial toxin kills host cells.
The mother's microbiome, the collection of microscopic organisms that live inside us, determines the risk of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in her offspring, new research from the UVA School of Medicine shows. The work raises the possibility we could prevent autism by altering expectant moms' diets.
A new International Journal of Cancer study reveals that eating an early supper and having a long interval between the last meal and sleep are associated with lower breast and prostate cancer risks.
A cranberry, honey or a candy bar - which tastes the sweetest? These foods contain sugars that humans can perceive differently. A cranberry seems tart, whereas a candy bar can be excessively sweet, and honey is somewhere in the middle. Now, in a study in ACS' The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers have shown that the perception of sweetness depends on molecular interactions between specific sugars and water in the saliva.
High bitter-taste sensitivity is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancer in older British women, according to researchers who conducted a unique study of 5,500 women whose diet, lifestyle and health has been tracked for about 20 years.
Single-cell sequencing technologies are filling in fine details in the catalog of life. Researchers at the University of Connecticut Health Center (UConn Health) and The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) have identified 40 subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) along with the genetic markers and transcription factors that differentiate them.