Immune cells called microglia can completely repopulate themselves in the retina after being nearly eliminated, according to a new study in mice from scientists at the National Eye Institute (NEI).
Taking menopausal hormone therapy soon after menopause to relieve symptoms may also benefit the brain, according to a study published in the March 21, 2018, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Alzheimer's disease is most often characterized by two different pathologies in the brain: plaque deposits of a protein called beta-amyloid and tangles of another protein called tau. A paper appearing March 21 in the journal Neuron offers new insight: tau production and secretion from nerve cells appears to be an active process in the natural course of Alzheimer's disease, which may explain why experimental treatments targeting tau have had disappointing results.
A review article by Prof. Stefan Broer, Ph.D., highlights opportunities and challenges in using amino acid transporters as drug targets. Amino Acid Transporters as Disease Modifiers and Drug Targets provides an overview of methods used to identify new inhibitors for amino acid transporters and outlines cell and organ function where these can be used to modulate, prevent or to treat diseases.
A UT Southwestern study in mice provides new clues about how a class of anti-rejection drugs used after organ transplants may also slow the progression of early-stage Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers at the UC Davis MIND Institute found that typically-developing children gain more neurons in a region of the brain that governs social and emotional behavior, the amygdala, as they become adults. This phenomenon does not happen in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Instead, children with ASD have too many neurons early on and then appear to lose those neurons as they become adults. The findings were published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Each day brings with it a host of decisions to be made, and each person approaches those decisions differently. A new study by University of Illinois researchers found that these individual differences are associated with variation in specific brain networks -- particularly those related to executive, social and perceptual processes.
Researchers have discovered a 'missing mutation' in severe infant epilepsy -- long-suspected genetic changes that might trigger overactive, brain-damaging electrical signaling leading to seizures. They also found early indications that specific anti-seizure medications might prevent disabling brain injury by controlling epilepsy during a crucial period shortly after birth.
New findings in mice suggest that the lack of a copy of the gene MVP may contribute to the symptoms of 16p11.2 deletion syndrome because it is needed for brain circuits to incorporate changes driven by experience.
The process that allows sounds experienced during infancy to shape language is poorly understood. Researchers at Nagoya University found that courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster can be shaped by earlier auditory experiences. Their findings allowed them to develop a novel and simple neurological model to study how experiences of sound can shape complex modes of communication in animals.