The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening people who are pregnant for asymptomatic bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine without signs or symptoms of a urinary tract infection) using urine culture and not screening other adults. The condition is present in an estimated 2% to 10% of pregnant women and is associated with pyelonephritis, a kidney infection that is a common reason for hospitalization in pregnant women.
Adding behavioral and physical therapy before and after surgery for women with stress and urgency urinary incontinence resulted in a small improvement in symptoms compared to women who just had surgery but that difference in symptoms may not be clinically important. There have been a lack of studies examining treatments for women with both stress and urgency urinary incontinence also called mixed urinary incontinence.
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common heart valve birth defect, is associated with genetic variation in human primary cilia during heart valve development, report Medical University of South Carolina researchers in Circulation. Crucial to cilia development is the exocyst, which shuttles cilia cargo to the cell membrane. Disrupting the exocyst impaired ciliogenesis and caused a spectrum of cardiac defects in zebrafish and BAV in mice. The findings could inspire new therapeutic strategies.
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have taken the first step towards trials of vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT). Inspired by the success of fecal transplantation, it is hoped that transplants of vaginal fluids from healthy donors will provide the first restorative, curative treatment for bacterial vaginosis. Published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, the team's donor screening concept aims to ensure that only beneficial microbes are transferred by VMT - and not potential pathogens.
Sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, pose a significant public health challenge. Globally, more than one million new STI cases are diagnosed each day. In a new article in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, experts from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, suggest that the biomedical research community must refocus its commitment to STI research to surmount this growing global health crisis.
Long-term opioid use previously has been linked with low testosterone in men. What has been unclear is how many men taking opioids had been screened or treated for low testosterone. A new study by researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston has found a very low rate of screening for low testosterone, a surprising finding given that a link is known.
A new meta-analysis published in Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology has found that SGLT2 inhibitors can reduce the risk of dialysis, transplantation, or death due to kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes.
A literature review by Veterans Affairs researchers highlights the usefulness of biofeedback for headache and incontinence treatment, and stroke recovery. There was less evidence for its role in other conditions.
Researchers uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism that may accelerate polycystic kidney disease.
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have discovered that an initial UTI can set the tone for subsequent infections. In mouse studies, the researchers found that a transient infection triggers a short-lived inflammatory response that rapidly eliminates the bacteria. But a lingering infection leads to persistent inflammation and long-lasting changes to the bladder that prime the immune system to overreact to bacteria the next time, worsening the infection.