Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers revealed that the immune cells basophils caused emphysema in mice with COPD-like features induced by intranasal administration of elastase. They showed that basophils, previously linked mainly to allergies and fighting parasites, initiated a cascade of reactions eventually leading to the release of excess MMP-12 and the destruction of alveolar walls. The team hopes that the findings will lead to breakthroughs in the treatment of COPD.
E-cigarettes are almost twice as effective as nicotine replacement treatments, such as patches and gum, at helping smokers to quit, according to a clinical trial led by Queen Mary University of London.
While not an FDA-approved treatment, e-cigarettes are used as, or more often by smokers to help them quit smoking, versus FDA-approved treatments for smoking cessation. An editorial in response to a newly published paper on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in the New England Journal of Medicine says that caution should be used in recommending e-cigarettes for smoking cessation.
New strides are being made toward the ex vivo growth of human lungs.
Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have discovered that antibodies that may form the basis of a universal flu vaccine inhibit a second viral protein in addition to the one that they bind. The study, to be published Jan. 25 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, reveals that antibodies that recognize the viral surface protein hemagglutinin can also inhibit the viral neuraminidase, and that this enhances antibody neutralization of the virus and the activation of innate immune cells with anti-viral activity.
Fish oil does not appear to improve asthma control in adolescents and young adults with uncontrolled asthma who are overweight or obese, according to new research published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.
An open label Phase 3 study conducted at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago and other centers established that a combination of cystic fibrosis drugs lumacaftor and ivacaftor is safe and effective in children aged 2-5 years, whose disease is caused by two copies of F508del-CFTR gene mutation -- the most common and severe form of cystic fibrosis.
A free, simple screening for lung cancer can save a patient money, while building a healthy relationship for any medical needs they may have in the future. The research, published in the Annals of Thoracic Surgery, shows the partnership can be beneficial for patients looking for cardiology specialists, family medical care and other health-related issues, as well as for medical facilities that offer the free screening.
A new study published in the January issue of CHEST® establishes that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) face heightened risks of death, critical illness, and hospitalization if they develop the flu and demonstrates the beneficial effects of influenza vaccination. The report also reveals gaps in care that need to be addressed, including less-than-universal influenza vaccination in patients with COPD and failure to provide an antiviral medication in a timely manner once the patient is diagnosed with the flu.
Screening all hospitalized patients with HIV for tuberculosis using urine tests would improve life expectancy and be cost-effective in Malawi and South Africa, reports an international team of investigators led by Massachusetts General Hospital physicians.