A new study shows that in repeated interactions winning strategies are either partners or rivals, but only partners allow for cooperation.
Young scientists from ITMO University have explained how neutron stars generate intense directed radio emission. They developed a model based on the transitions of particles between gravitational states, i.e. quantum states in gravitational field. The researchers were the first to describe such states for electrons on the surface of neutron stars. Physical parameters obtained with the developed model are consistent with real experimental observations. The results are published in The Astrophysical Journal.
A recent study of more than 2.7 billion tweets between 2009 and 2016 confirms that Twitter users are exposed mainly to political opinions that agree with their own. It is the largest study to characterize echo chambers by both the content in them and the networks they comprise. The findings indicate a strong correlation between biases in the content people both produce and consume. In other words, echo chambers are very real on Twitter.
A machine learning approach for assessing images of the craters and dunes of Mars, which was developed at The University of Manchester, has now been adapted to help scientists measure the effects of treatments on tumors.
Using observational data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, the size and mass of galaxy clusters have precisely been measured. Osaka University-led research team analyzed those data and found a simple law that regulates the growth of the clusters. They also showed that the clusters are still young and growing. The newfound law will serve as a tool to clarify the evolutionary history of clusters and the universe.
A major issue that limits modeling to predict cardiac arrhythmia is that it is impossible to measure and monitor all the variables that make our hearts tick, but researchers have now developed an algorithm that uses artificial intelligence to model the electrical excitations in heart muscle. Their work, appearing in Chaos, draws on partial differential equations describing excitable media and echo state networks to cross-predict variables about chaotic electrical wave propagations in cardiac tissue.
Researchers from the University of Texas at Dallas developed a way to extract more power from the wind. The researchers used supercomputers at the Texas Advanced Computing Center to filter out the effects of turbulence and apply control algorithms that can better manage the operation of wind farms. The approach has the potential to increase wind power generation by 6-7 percent with a estimated increase in revenue of more than $600 million nationwide.
Using the photo-sharing site Instagram as a test case, Columbia researchers demonstrate how two common recommendation algorithms amplify a network effect known as homophily in which similar or like-minded people cluster together. They further show how algorithms turned loose on a network with homophily effectively make women less visible; they found that the women in their dataset, whose photos were slightly less likely to be 'liked' or commented on, became even less popular once recommendation algorithms were introduced.
Need stronger timber, better biofuels or new sources of green chemicals? A systems biology model developed over decades of research led by NC State University will accelerate progress in engineering trees for specific needs.
New Stanford research shows that, over the past century, linguistic changes in gender and ethnic stereotypes correlated with major social movements and demographic changes in the US Census data.